Bipolar Medication Guide

Medications and Drugs for Bipolar Disorder Treatment

If you have bipolar disorder, medication will most likely be a part of your treatment plan. Medication can help bring mania and depression under control and prevent relapse once your mood has stabilised. But taking medication is just one aspect of treatment. Your lifestyle, support system, and other types of therapy are also important in managing symptoms. Finding the right drug can be tricky, so it’s important to work closely with a specialist and re-evaluate your medication regularly as the optimum dose may change over time.

The role of medication in bipolar disorder treatment

If you have bipolar disorder, medication will likely be the foundation of your treatment plan. Medication can bring mania and depression under control and prevent relapse once your mood has stabilised. You may not like the idea of taking bipolar medication long term, especially if you’re struggling with unpleasant side effects. But just as a diabetic needs to take insulin in order to stay healthy, taking medication for bipolar disorder will help you maintain a stable mood.
However, do not expect medication alone to solve all your problems. There are plenty of other steps you can take to manage your symptoms and reduce the amount of medication required. Medication is most effective when used in combination with other bipolar disorder treatments, including therapy, self-help coping strategies, and healthy lifestyle choices.

Tips for getting the most out of medication for bipolar disorder

Avoid antidepressants. The treatment for bipolar depression is different than for regular depression. In fact, antidepressants can actually make bipolar disorder worse or trigger a manic episode. Try mood stabilisers first and never take antidepressants without them, as antidepressants can trigger mania and rapid mood cycling when used on their own.

Take advantage of natural mood stabilisers. Your lifestyle has an impact on your symptoms. If you make healthy daily choices, you may be able to reduce the amount of medication you need. Mood stabilisers that don’t require a prescription include keeping a strict sleep schedule, exercising regularly, practicing relaxation techniques, and developing a solid support system.

Add therapy to your treatment plan. Research shows that people who take medication for bipolar disorder tend to recover much faster and control their moods better if they also get therapy. Therapy gives you the tools to cope with life’s difficulties, monitor your progress, and deal with the problems bipolar disorder is causing in your personal and professional life.

Continue taking medication, even after you feel better. The likelihood of having a relapse is very high if you stop taking your bipolar medication. Suddenly stopping medication is especially dangerous. Talk to your doctor before you make any changes, even if you believe you no longer need medication. Your doctor can help you make any adjustments safely.

Finding the right bipolar disorder medication

It can take a while to find the right bipolar medication and dose. Everyone responds to medication differently, so you may have to try several bipolar disorder drugs before you find the one that works for you. Be patient, but don’t settle for a bipolar medication that makes you feel lousy, either.
Once you’ve discovered the right bipolar disorder drug or drug cocktail, it may still take time to determine the optimal dose. In the case of mood stabilising medications such as lithium, the difference between a beneficial dose and a toxic one is small. Continue taking your medication even after you feel better as the likelihood of having a relapse is very high. Frequent office visits to re-evaluate your bipolar medication needs and careful monitoring of symptoms and side effects will help you stay safe.

Learn about your bipolar disorder medication

When starting a new medication for bipolar disorder, educate yourself about how to take it safely. Questions to ask your doctor about any new prescription include:

  1. Are there any medical conditions that could be causing or exacerbating my mood swings?
  2. What are the side effects and risks of the medication you are recommending?
  3. When and how should I take this medication?
  4. Are there any foods or other substances I will need to avoid?
  5. How will this drug interact with my other prescriptions?
  6. How long will I have to take this medication?
  7. Will withdrawing from the drug be difficult if I decide to stop?
  8. Will my symptoms return when I stop taking the medication?

How often should I talk with my doctor?

During acute mania or depression, most people talk with their doctor at least once a week, or even every day, to monitor symptoms, medication doses, and side effects. As you recover, you will see your doctor less often; once you are well, you might see your doctor for a quick review every few months. Regardless of scheduled appointments or blood tests, call your doctor if you have:

  • Suicidal or violent feelings
  • Changes in mood, sleep, or energy
  • Changes in medication side effects
  • Need for over-the-counter medication (cold or pain medicine)
  • An acute medical illness or need for surgery, extensive dental care, or changes in other medicines you take
  • A change in your medication situation, such as pregnancy

Generic vs. brand-name drugs

Generic drugs have the same use, dosage, side effects, risks, safety profile, and potency as the original brand-name drug. The main reason why generic drugs are cheaper than brand-name drugs is that the generic drug manufacturer does not need to recoup huge expenses for developing and marketing a drug. Once the patent for the original drug has expired, other manufacturers can produce the same drug with the same ingredients at a markedly lower cost.
Occasionally, brand-name drugs have different coatings or colour dyes to change their appearance. In rare cases, these extra ingredients will make the generic form of the drug less tolerable, so if your condition worsens after switching from a brand-name to a generic drug, consult your doctor. In most cases, however, generic drugs are just as safe and effective as brand-name drugs, and a lot easier on your wallet.

Take your bipolar medication as prescribed

You may be tempted to stop taking your bipolar disorder medication if you’re experiencing side effects. Or conversely, you may want to stop taking your pills because you feel great and don’t think you need them anymore. However, stopping maintenance medication comes with a high risk of relapse. Stopping cold turkey is even more risky.
Before you make any bipolar medication changes, talk to you doctor. If you don’t like the way the drug makes you feel or if it’s not working, there may be other options you can try. And if you decide that medication is not for you, your doctor can help you taper off the drugs safely.

Keep track of side effects

Track any side effects you experience. Using a log, keep a record of your symptoms, when they occur, and how bad they are. Bring the worksheet to your doctor. He or she may have suggestions for minimising the side effects. If side effects are severe, your doctor may switch you to another drug or change your bipolar medication dose.

Be aware of potential drug interactions

You should always check for drug interactions before taking another prescription medication, over-the-counter drug, or herbal supplement. Drug interactions can cause unexpected side effects or make your bipolar disorder medication less effective or even dangerous. Mixing certain foods and beverages with your bipolar medication can also cause problems.
Talk to your doctor about special precautions for the bipolar medication or medications you’re taking. You can also learn about potential interactions by reading drug labels or talking to your pharmacist.

Tips for managing bipolar disorder medications

  • Use a daily reminder/medication saver system to make sure you are taking all of the necessary medications.
  • Throw away old medications or those you are no longer taking.
  • Realize that medications work best when you are making other healthy choices. Don’t expect a pill to fix a bad diet, lack of exercise, or an abusive or chaotic lifestyle.
  • Reduce or discontinue the use of alcohol. Alcohol is a depressant and makes recovery even more difficult. It can also interfere with the way your medication works.

Lithium: The first mood stabiliser for bipolar disorder

Mood stabilisers are medications that help control the highs and lows of bipolar disorder. They are the cornerstone of treatment, both for mania and depression. Lithium is the oldest and most well-known mood stabiliser. It is highly effective for treating mania.
Lithium can also help bipolar depression. However, it is not as effective for mixed episodes or rapid cycling forms of bipolar disorder. Lithium takes from one to two weeks to reach its full effect.

Common side effects of lithium

The following side effects are common on lithium. Some may go away as your body adapts to the medication.

  • Weight gain
  • Drowsiness
  • Tremor
  • Weakness or fatigue
  • Excessive thirst; increased urination
  • Stomach pain
  • Thyroid problems
  • Memory and concentration problems
  • Nausea, vertigo
  • Diarrhea

The importance of regular blood tests

If you take lithium, it’s important to have regular blood tests to make sure your dose is in the effective range. Doses that are too high can be toxic. When you first start taking it, your doctor may check your blood levels once or twice a week. Once the right dose has been determined and your levels are steady, blood tests will be less frequent.
However, it’s still important to get blood tests every two to three months, since many things can cause your lithium levels to change. Even taking a different brand of lithium can lead to different blood levels.

Other factors that influence your lithium levels

  • Weight loss or gain
  • The amount of sodium in your diet
  • Seasonal changes (lithium levels may be higher in the summer)
  • Many prescription and over-the-counter drugs (e.g. ibuprofen, diuretics, and heart and blood pressure medication)
  • Caffeine, tea, and coffee
  • Dehydration
  • Hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy
  • Changes in your health (for example, heart disease and kidney disease increase the risk of lithium toxicity)

What can I do to avoid toxic lithium levels from developing?

  • Make sure that you go for the blood tests whenever they are needed.
  • Don’t suddenly change the amount of salt in your diet; it is especially important not to suddenly reduce your salt intake.
  • Make sure that you drink enough fluids, especially if you are exercising heavily or in hot weather when you will sweat more.
  • Remember that alcoholic drinks can make you lose water overall. This is particularly important to bear in mind if you are on vacation in the sun: you may feel like drinking more alcohol, and the weather may be hot so you sweat more.
  • See a doctor straight away if you get any of the physical illnesses or symptoms listed above. Always tell any doctor or pharmacist that you are taking lithium before you are prescribed, or buy, any new medicines.

Anticonvulsant mood stabilisers for bipolar disorder

Anticonvulsants are used in the treatment of bipolar disorder as mood stabilisers. Originally developed for the treatment of epilepsy, they have been shown to relieve the symptoms of mania and reduce mood swings.

Valproic acid (Depakote)

Valproic acid, also known as divalproex or valproate, is a highly effective mood stabiliser. Common brand names include Depakote and Depakene. Valproic acid is often the first choice for rapid cycling, mixed mania, or mania with hallucinations or delusions. It is a good bipolar medication option if you can’t tolerate the side effects of lithium.
Common side effects include:

  • Drowsiness
  • Weight gain
  • Dizziness
  • Tremor
  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea

Other anticonvulsant medications for bipolar disorder

  • Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
  • Lamotrigine (Lamictal)
  • Topiramate (Topamax)

Antidepressant medications for bipolar disorder

Although antidepressants have traditionally been used to treat episodes of bipolar depression, their use is becoming more and more controversial. A growing body of research calls their safety and efficacy into question.

Antidepressants should be used with caution

Antidepressants don’t work very well for bipolar depression. Mounting evidence suggests that antidepressants aren’t effective in the treatment of bipolar depression. A major study funded by the National Institute of Mental Health showed that adding an antidepressant to a mood stabiliser was no more effective in treating bipolar depression than using a mood stabiliser alone. Another NIHM study found that antidepressants work no better than placebo.

Antidepressants can trigger mania in people with bipolar disorder. If antidepressants are used at all, they should be combined with a mood stabiliser such as lithium or valproic acid. Taking an antidepressant without a mood stabiliser is likely to trigger a manic episode.

Antidepressants can increase mood cycling. Many experts believe that over time, antidepressant use in people with bipolar disorder has a mood destabilising effect, increasing the frequency of manic and depressive episodes.

Treating bipolar depression with mood stabilisers

The new focus in bipolar depression treatment is on optimising the dose of mood stabilisers. If you can stop your mood cycling, you might stop having depressive episodes entirely. If you are able to stop the mood cycling, but symptoms of depression remain, the following medications may help:

  • Lamictal (lamotrigine)
  • Seroquel (quetiapine)
  • Zyprexa (olanzapine)
  • Symbyax (a pill that combines olanzapine with the antidepressant fluoxetine)

What should I do if I’m currently taking an antidepressant?

First, and most importantly, don’t panic! DO NOT stop taking your antidepressant suddenly, as this can be dangerous. Talk to your doctor about slowly tapering off the antidepressant. The tapering process should be done very slowly, usually over the course of several months, in order to reduce adverse withdrawal effects. Only stop taking antidepressants immediately if any symptoms of mania or hypomania develop.

Antipsychotic medications for bipolar disorder

If you lose touch with reality during a manic or depressive episode, an antipsychotic drug may be prescribed. They have also been found to help with regular manic episodes. Antipsychotic medications may be helpful if you have tried mood stabilisers without success. Often, antipsychotic medications are combined with a mood stabiliser such as lithium or valproic acid.
Antipsychotic medications used for bipolar disorder include:

  • Olanzapine (Zyprexa)
  • Quetiapine (Seroquel)
  • Risperidone (Risperdal)
  • Ariprazole (Abilify)
  • Ziprasidone (Geodon)
  • Clozapine (Clozaril)

Common side effects of antipsychotic medications for bipolar disorder

  • Drowsiness
  • Weight gain
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Dry mouth
  • Constipation
  • Blurred vision

Dealing with antipsychotic-induced erectile dysfunction

Sexual and erectile dysfunction is a common side effect of antipsychotic medications, one that often deters bipolar disorder patients from continuing medication. However, a recent study has shown that the medication Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) is both safe and effective in the treatment of antipsychotic-induced erectile dysfunction in men.

Other medications for bipolar disorder

Mood stabilisers can take up to several weeks to reach their full effect. While you’re waiting for the medication to kick in, your doctor may prescribe a benzodiazepine to relieve any symptoms of anxiety, agitation, or insomnia. Benzodiazepines are fast-acting sedatives that work within 30 minutes to an hour. Because of their high addictive potential, however, benzodiazepines should only be used until your mood stabiliser or antidepressant begins to work. Those with a history of substance abuse should be particularly cautious.
Traditionally used to treat heart problems and high blood pressure, they also have a mood stabilising effect. They have fewer side effects than traditional mood stabilisers, but they are also less effective. However, they may be an option for people who can’t tolerate lithium or anticonvulsants.
People with bipolar disorder often have abnormal levels of thyroid hormone. Thyroid dysfunction is particularly prevalent in rapid cyclers. Lithium treatment can also cause low thyroid levels. In these cases, thyroid medication is added to the drug treatment regimen. While research is still ongoing, thyroid medication also shows promise as a treatment for bipolar depression with minimal side effects.

Taking medication for bipolar disorder responsibly

All prescription drugs come with risks, but if you take your bipolar disorder medications responsibly and combine them with therapy and healthy lifestyle choices, you can minimise the risks and maximise your chances of treatment success.

Resources and references

General information about bipolar disorder medications

Bipolar Disorder – This overview of bipolar disorder includes detailed information toward the end of the article on medications used to treat bipolar disorder. (University of Maryland Medical Center)
Medication for Bipolar Disorder – In-depth look at bipolar disorder drugs, including the different types, special considerations and precautions, and questions to ask your doctor. (Psychology Information Online)
Generic and Brand Name Drugs: Understanding the Basics (PDF) – Learn about generic and brand name drugs for bipolar disorder and how to make smart medication choices. (Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance)

Mood stabiliser medications for bipolar disorder

Lithium – Learn all about lithium, including common side effects, risks, how to take it safely and effectively, and why regular blood tests are necessary. (
About Medications: Lithium – Find questions and answers about lithium and its use in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Covers side effects and safety guidelines. (National Alliance on Mental Illness)
Mood stabilisers – Introduction to the mood stabilisers for manic depression and how to choose the right one. Includes the latest research on the effectiveness of different medications. (
Bipolar Meds – Lithium and Mood stabilisers – Describes mood stabilisers and their use in bipolar disorder. Includes research and usage guidelines for lithium and divalproex sodium. (McMan’s Depression and Bipolar Web – lots of ads)

Antidepressant medications for bipolar disorder

Wrestling with Bipolar Disorder – Covers the negative effects of antidepressant medication on the course of bipolar disorder, and new drug options for the depressive phase. (Psychology Today)
Antidepressants in Bipolar Disorder: The Controversies – Summary of the research on antidepressant medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder, including information about the risks. (

Antipsychotic medications for bipolar disorder

Antipsychotics and Bipolar Disorder – Guide to the use of antipsychotic medication in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Includes side effects and the latest research. (
Bipolar Meds – The Antipsychotics – Covers the history of antipsychotic medications and their use in treating mania and depression. (McMan’s Depression and Bipolar Web)

Delving deeper into bipolar disorder medication treatment

Management of Bipolar Disorder – Discusses the signs of bipolar disorder, co-occurring conditions, medication treatment recommendations, and drug interactions to watch for. (American Academy of Family Physicians)

Combining complementary treatments with medications for bipolar disorder

Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) – Details the long-term outpatient study designed to find out which treatments, or combinations of treatments, are most effective for treating bipolar disorder. (National Institute of Mental Health)
Peer Support – How to find in-person and online support for bipolar disorder. (Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance)
A Healthy Diet: Tips for Individuals With Bipolar Disorder – Nutrition expert explains what you need to know about creating a bipolar-conscious diet. (HealthCentral)
Bipolar Disorder, Light, and Darkness: Treatment Implications – Learn how light affects the brain and what this can mean for bipolar disorder symptoms and treatment. (